Category Archives: 1 John

Examples of Worldliness Today – Part 3 – The Pride of Life

In a recent message, Responding to a worldly Christian, we discussed the definition of worldliness according to 1 John 2:15-17. In that passage, we saw that worldliness includes the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life. We also saw that worldliness has bad results: It replaces our love for God, makes us an enemy of God, and pollutes our lives. We have already discussed the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes. Today, I would like us to consider some modern examples of another part of worldliness.

3. The pride of life

The third phrase used to describe worldliness is “the pride of life.” The first part of the phrase is pride. The Greek word translated as pride is ἀλαζονεία. It is defined as “boasting, pretension, arrogance … haughtiness.”1 The Greek word for life is βίου. It is defined as “(everyday) life; what one lives on, property, possessions.”1 When you put the two together, you get a haughty attitude about one’s life and possessions. The person who succumbs to the pride of life is proud about what he has accomplished in life and what he owns. “It is the arrogance that separates us from others and limits our effectiveness.”2

What is a biblical example of the pride of life?

The biblical example that immediately comes to mind is Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 4). After becoming successful and overseeing the worldwide Babylonian empire, the king became proud. God warned him about his pride by sending him a dream about a huge tree that could be seen by all the earth. It provided food and shelter to all but was cut down until everyone realized that God is the Ruler and uses humble people. Nebuchadnezzar didn’t know what the dream meant, so he called Daniel in to tell him. Daniel told the king that he was the great tree which would be cut down until he acknowledged that God rules over all and puts whomever He wishes in charge.

We don’t hear of Nebuchadnezzar changing his ways at first. A year later, he made a haughty statement: “Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for a royal dwelling by my mighty power and for the honor of my majesty?” In other words, Nebuchadnezzar was proud about his accomplishments, his power, and his majesty. Without acknowledging what God had allowed him to accomplish, Nebuchadnezzar took all the credit. This was the worldly pride of life. God’s judgment immediately fell on the king. He lost his kingdom, became like a beast, and was kept in the wild. But after a period of time, God allowed him to think like a man again. God’s judgment brought him to repentance where the once arrogant king praised God and acknowledged that God was ultimately in charge. He concluded by saying that, “those who walk in pride He is able to put down.”

What does the Bible say about pride?

We may be tempted to think that all pride is wrong. However, “there is a difference between the kind of pride that God hates (Proverbs 8:13) and the kind of pride we can feel about a job well done (Galatians 6:4) or the kind of pride we express over the accomplishment of loved ones (2 Corinthians 7:4). The kind of pride that stems from self-righteousness or conceit is sin.”3 The Bible makes it clear that pride in our own accomplishments or possessions is sinful because we are taking all the credit and not acknowledging what God has done. “Pride is essentially self-worship.”3

Consider several Bible verses about pride:

Psalm 10:4 – “The wicked in his proud countenance does not seek God; God is in none of his thoughts.”

Proverbs 8:13 – “The fear of the Lord is to hate evil; Pride and arrogance and the evil way and the perverse mouth I hate.

Proverbs 16:18 – “Pride goes before destruction, And a haughty spirit before a fall.”

Mark 7:21-23 – “For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. All these evil things come from within and defile a man.”

1 Timothy 3:6 – “not a novice, lest being puffed up with pride he fall into the same condemnation as the devil.”

In all of these verses, we see that the pride of life is anti-God, hated by God, destructive, defiling, and condemned with the devil. The pride of life is a worldly evil that doesn’t come from God but comes from within our sinful hearts and is prodded on by Satan and those who follow his ways.

Where does the pride of life confront Christians today?

It would be easy to point to Pride Week and point out the anti-God ideas expressed by those who rebel against God. But let’s take a closer look to ourselves. The pride of life is “that which makes us feel superior to someone else.”4 Do any of these apply to you?

• I am much better than people who are not Christians.
• I am much better than other Christians.
• I have accomplished so much in my life.
• I am beautiful, handsome, strong, hard-working, etc.
• I have a better position at work than others.
• I have more money and possessions than others.
• I have a better educational degree than others.
• I have more experience than others.
• I have a better pedigree.
• I am from a better race than others.

All of these proud statements are symptoms that we have become infected with the pride of life. The pride of life “is not of the Father but is of the world.” So when we find ourselves boasting about our accomplishments or possessions, let us quickly remind ourselves that we are being worldly instead of godly. This does not please the Lord at all.


Let us take a moment and examine ourselves. Have we been acting proudful? If so, we should step back and reconsider where all that we are and have actually came from. Paul, who was one of the most influential Christians used by God, could have boasted in his accomplishments. But instead, he took pride in what God did for him.

Galatians 6:14 – “God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.”

When Paul looked back on what had been accomplished in his life, he realized that it was all due to what Jesus did for him on the cross. Like the rest of us, Paul was a sinner who could not please God. Jesus had to die for his sins as well as for ours. When Paul repented of his sins and put his faith in Jesus, there was a remarkable change in his life. God changed him from an abusive, ignorant, religious zealot who was headed to destruction. What a difference God made in his life. What a difference he has made in my life.

Everything that we are and have is a direct result of the One who created us, sustains us, saved us, changed us, and provides for us. We can’t take credit for what God has done without sinning against the One who has done everything for us. If the Lord has revealed to you that you have given in to the pride of life, will you this moment repent of your sin and acknowledge God as the One who deserves all the glory?


1 Mounce
2 “What is the pride of life?”
3 “What does the Bible say about pride?”
4 McGee


McGee, J. Vernon, Thru the Bible with J. Vernon McGee, Vol. V, 1 Corinthians through Revelation, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1983, p. 775.

Mounce, Bill, “Greek Dictionary” as viewed at on 6/25/2023.

“What does the Bible say about pride?” as viewed at on 6/25/2023.

“What is the pride of life?” as viewed at on 6/25/2023.

Examples of Worldliness – Part 2 – the Lust of the Eyes

In a recent message, Responding to a worldly Christian, we discussed the definition of worldliness according to 1 John 2:15-17. In that passage, we saw that worldliness includes the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life. We also saw that worldliness has bad results: It replaces our love for God, makes us an enemy of God, and pollutes our lives. We have already discussed the lust of the flesh. Today, I would like us to consider some modern examples of another part of worldliness.

The second phrase used to describe worldliness is “the lust of the eyes.” The first part of the phrase is lust. The Greek word translated as lust is ἐπιθυμία. It is defined as “desire, longing (in contexts where the desire is positive and proper); coveting, craving, lusting (in contexts where the desire is immoral and sinful).”1 “Simply put, the lust of the eyes is the sinful desire to possess what we see or to have those things which have visual appeal.”2 While the lust of the eyes may lead to the lust of the flesh, it always begins with the eyes and the mind. It is a sinful longing that begins by looking and often leads to sinful thoughts and actions.

  1. Bible principles about our eyes

    Before we look too deeply into the subject, let’s look at three principles about the lust of the flesh. These will help guide our thoughts and our eyes.

    Don’t desire what someone else has (Ex. 20:17).
    Don’t let what you desire determine what is right (Judg. 17:6; 1 Kings 15:5).
    Don’t desire what will never really satisfy (Prov. 27:20).

    As you can see, the Lord wants us to avoid the lusts that come from our eyes. If we were to follow these biblical principles, we would do much better in resisting it.

  2. Bible examples of worldly eyes

    Throughout the history of the world, men and women have struggled with and often given in to the temptations associated with the lust of the eyes. The Bible records many examples where what the person saw led to a longing for what was not best and usually sinful.

    Eve – She saw and longed for the forbidden fruit (Gen. 3:6).
    Lot – He saw and longed for the well-watered plain (Gen. 13:10).
    Potiphar’s wife – She saw and longed for Joseph (Gen. 39:7).
    Samson – He saw and longed for an ungodly woman (Judg. 14:1-2).
    Solomon – He saw and enjoyed whatever pleased him (Eccl. 2:10).
    False teachers – They saw and longed for adultery (2 Pet. 2:14).

    These biblical examples show us that other people have been tempted by what they saw. But their temptations were from long ago. Are these the same things we face today? Unfortunately, not much has changed.

  3. Modern examples of worldly eyes

    Christians are not immune to the lust of the eyes. Each of us has experienced the longing that comes from seeing something with our eyes. While our temptations may be different, we have probably been tempted by one or more of the following things seen with our eyes.

    We see people enjoying popularity.
    We see people enjoying wealth.
    We see people enjoying drugs and alcohol.
    We see people enjoying sexual promiscuity.

    What we see is not always reality. Those who are popular, wealthy, intoxicated, or promiscuous are not necessarily content. The lives of the rich and famous are filled with unhappy marriages, ruined health, and a desire to be alone.

  4. Bible wisdom about our eyes

    God gives prohibition against things that are not good for us. But He also gives us reasons for avoiding sinful practices and advice on how to keep from giving in. Let’s look at three wise statements about our eyes.

    Determine not to look (Job 31:1; Prov. 4:25).
    Realize that what you see will not satisfy you (Prov. 23:5; Eccl. 5:10-11).
    Don’t let your eyes ruin your life (Matt. 18:9).

    What is more important to resisting the lust of the eyes: the mind or the eyes? I propose that it is the mind. If we are guarding our mind, we will choose not to look. Or, if something comes into view, we determine to look away and not dwell on it. We do this because we want to please the Lord and realize that his warnings are for our good.


Seeing something with your eyes is not necessarily a sin. As you go through life, you will see television advertisements, billboards, store fronts, and people living their lives. At times what you see will be a temptation to you. But when you take your eyes off of what is pleasing to the Lord and begin looking for satisfaction outside of what God says is best for you, then it becomes a problem. When what you see becomes a constant focus which takes you away from a God-honoring lifestyle, you then have a problem.

So, this week, as you go through life and see things, look away from things that cause you to lust. Turn your eyes, instead, to things that will keep you on the right path. Look at good things. Look at the devastation caused by the lust of the flesh and keep yourself from it.


1 Mounce
2 GotQuestions


Hiebert, D. Edmond, The Epistles of John, Greenville: Bob Jones University Press, 1991, p. 102.

Mounce, Bill, “Greek Dictionary” as viewed at on 6/11/2023.

“What is the lust of the eyes?” as viewed at on 6/11/2023.

Examples of Worldliness Today – Part 1 – the Lust of the Flesh

In a recent message, Responding to a worldly Christian, we discussed the definition of worldliness according to 1 John 2:15-17. In that passage, we saw that worldliness includes the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life. We also saw that worldliness has bad results: It replaces our love for God, makes us an enemy of God, and pollutes our lives. Today, I would like us to consider some modern examples of worldliness which Christians face today.

  1. The lust of the flesh

    What is a biblical example of this?

    In Proverbs 5, Solomon gives his son a straightforward warning against the temptation of sexual immorality. In verses 1-6, he warns that the immoral woman’s lips drip with honey (she is enticing) but her path leads to bitterness, pain, and death. In verses 7-14, he warns to stay away from her house because you will regret the outcome. In verses 15-20, he encourages his son to be satisfied with his own wife and not to share her with others. In verses 21-23, he reminds his son that the Lord is watching his actions and that these sins will entrap him.

    Joseph is a good example of fleeing temptation (Gen. 39:7-20). When his master’s wife tried to seduce him, he boldly told her this was a sin against his master and against God. When she tried to force him into the act, Joseph fled the scene leaving his outer garment in her hands. While his integrity was not rewarded by his master, he did the right thing.

    King David is a bad example in this area (2 Sam. 11). He gave in to the lust of the flesh and committed adultery with Uriah’s wife. Although he had several wives already (several!), he noticed Bathsheba bathing on the rooftop and arranged for her to join him in the bedroom. This one moment of immoral passion led to deceit, murder, and the death of the child. Was it worth it? David would tell you it was not.

    Where does this confront Christians today?

    Today, there are many ways that sexual immorality confronts Christian men and women.

    A first example is pornography. Satan and the world have been using pictures, videos, or literature to promote the sinful lust of the flesh. It wouldn’t be helpful to go into much detail here. But are you aware that this type of material is readily available on your phone, computer, and television? The lust of the flesh is a tricky thing. It can start with a small temptation and then develop into something much worse. It is better to set boundaries against such things. Once you know that there is a temptation somewhere, stay away from that area.

    Psalm 103:3 – “I will set nothing wicked before my eyes; I hate the work of those who fall away; it shall not cling to me.”

    A second example is relationships. There are some desires that should only be fulfilled in the marriage relationship. When a person is unmarried, this is not permissible. But when a single person gets emotionally involved with another person before marriage, it is difficult to hold back those desires as God intended. The same can be said for married people. When a husband or wife are not getting along, they can begin to seek emotional fulfillment from other people. This can often be a temptation for intimacy that should be reserved only for marriage. This is why Christians need to guard their relationships with the opposite sex. Setting limits on relationships may seem extreme to some but it is better to be careful than to regret not being so.

    1 Corinthians 7:1-3 – “Now concerning the things of which you wrote to me: It is good for a man not to touch a woman. Nevertheless, because of sexual immorality, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband. Let the husband render to his wife the affection due her, and likewise also the wife to her husband.”

    A third example is homosexuality. For those who have not experienced this temptation, it may come as a surprise that this would be on the list. Are Christians tempted by homosexuality, transgenderism, or other such sins? The answer is yes. When pornography or adultery are not enough to satisfy the lusts of the flesh, some are tempted to try deviant sexual behavior. The lust of the flesh is a strong drive. When self-control is not strong and the opportunity arises, some have given in to this sin.

    Romans 1:26-27 – “For this reason God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what is against nature. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due.”

    This passage in Romans describes the downward spiral of those who reject God’s ways. I think it is referring to those who do not know God. But the same results can come to Christians when they refuse to follow God’s plan for sexual intimacy. What God intended for good can be distorted leading to a lifestyle which does not please God.


There is more that could be discussed, I am sure. But we need to address one more thing. How can you keep yourself from giving in to the lust of the flesh? What kind of safeguards will you put into place to guard yourself from this temptation?

1. Keep yourself from media that tempts you.

Do you have romance novels, television programs, movies, magazines that cater to the lust of the flesh? Do the right thing and get rid of them. Stop reading those books and magazines. Stop watching those videos, movies, and television programs. If something causes you to be tempted, it is better to remove it than to have those thoughts in your mind.

2. Keep yourself from relationships that tempt you.

Do you have relationships before marriage or during marriage that are a temptation to you? It would be good to guard yourself against becoming emotionally or physically involved with someone who is not your husband or wife. Be satisfied with what God has provided you and keep yourself from anything that will tempt you to go outside of the protective walls He has designed for you.

3. Keep yourself close to the Lord.

We often want to have “how to” answers for avoiding temptation. If you do this, you will avoid temptation. The lust of the flesh has a way of getting around safeguards. But there is one thing that will always help you—a close relationship with the Lord. When you are reading your Bible, seeking to please Him, praying and submitting to His will, it will be much more difficult to give into temptation.

With God’s help, you can enjoy your life the way God designed it to be. But the temptation to do other things is often there. Will you commit yourself to the Lord and practice self-control this week. If you do, God will bless your life and help you to avoid giving in to the temptations that you face this week.

Responding to a worldly Christian

One of the things that has been bothering me about modern Christianity is worldliness. Many Christian churches are turning out people who are not much different than the rest of the world. They think like the world. They act like the world. They look like the world. When you compare this to what the Bible says about worldliness, you get the idea that someone has been teaching that worldliness is not a serious issue to Christians.

  1. What is worldliness according to the Bible? (1 John 2:15-17)

    When John tells us not the love the world, he is not referring to this physical world which God made for our enjoyment. Remember that He made the Garden of Eden for Adam and Eve. He is not talking about the people in the world either since God loved the world. Instead, he is talking about a way of thinking. “The world … is a system of values and goals from which God is excluded” (Hodges 891). He is talking about the way we used to live before we were changed by God (Eph. 2:2). But it is even more than this.

    The world is not just a bunch of temptations that stem from our own desires. It is a Satanic system that is organized to oppose God. “It means the world system, the organized system headed by Satan which leaves God out and is actually in opposition to Him” (McGee 774). So when we think of the world, we have to change our thinking about it. It is not an ambiguous idea that is out there somewhere. It is a way of thinking that is designed to turn people away from everything God stands for.

    One of the clearest definitions of worldliness is found in 1 John 2:16. There John defines worldliness in three ways.

    a. The lust of the flesh

    The first category is the lust of the flesh. Lust is “a strong desire or craving… . [It] predominantly denotes an evil desire” (Hiebert 101-02). We need to be careful that we don’t confuse all human desires as evil, though. “The cravings which God has placed in the human body in themselves are not sinful; they are God-given and essential for continuance of life here on earth. But they readily become sinful when used for illegitimate ends” (Hiebert 102).

    When it comes to the lust of the flesh, this is often seen in hedonism, the insatiable desire for pleasure. “Hedonism, the playboy philosophy that makes pleasure mankind’s chief end, still wages battles in people’s hearts” (Blue 829). When we are driven by our lusts in a sinful way, we are guilty of the lust of the flesh. This can be seen in gluttony and sexual activity outside of heterosexual marriage. Adultery, homosexuality, rape, and pre-marital sexual activity is considered to be sin by God. Please note that God designed our bodies with sexual desires which are good, but when these are sought outside of the boundaries He put in place, they breed trouble.

    b. The lust of the eyes

    The second category of worldliness is the lust of the eyes. This has to do with “the cravings and lusts stimulated by what is seen” (Hiebert 102). These can include immoral desires but also covetousness. The world system is designed to tempt us to find happiness in the things we see. First, we see something, covet it, and then act on that impulse.

    Is it any wonder that there are so many billboards, television ads, and color brochures? These are not bad in themselves until they are used to turn us from contentment in what God has provided to the insatiable desire for what we don’t yet have. Remember how the serpent tempted Eve. She listened to his deceitful message and then looked at the fruit. This created in her a desire for something that she wasn’t supposed to have. And as you know the desire was more than she or her husband could handle.

    c. The pride of life

    The third category of worldliness is the pride of life. This “signifies a proud and ostentatious way of life” (Hodges 891). Ostentatious is defined as something “designed to impress or attract notice” (Google). “It expresses the spirit of the professional ‘braggart’ (alazon), one who extols his own virtues or possessions. … It is an attitude of boastfulness and a hollow self-exaltation based on material possessions of social prominence. It is the disposition to ‘show off’ before others on the basis of worldly possessions or personal abilities and achievements” (Hiebert 102-03).

    Is it wrong to be proud of an accomplishment? I suppose that it depends on the attitude you have. If you are constantly talking about what you have accomplished and you never mention God’s part in enabling you to do it, then yes, that would be wrong. Pride is taking the glory for something you have or have done instead of giving the glory to God for what He has done in your life. This is what Satan tried to do with Jesus when he tempted Him in the wilderness. Jump off the building and you will get lots of attention. Acquire all of these cities and you will be famous. The pride of life is designed to turn our attention away from God to ourselves. This is not what God intended.

  2. How serious is worldliness?

    You might get the impression that it would be better for us to move to Mars rather than live in such a sinful environment. But “John is not calling for a monastic separation from the world but for an inner attitude of separation from the sinful world and its practices” (Hiebert 100). Remember that Jesus prayed not that the Father would take us out of the world but that He would keep us from evil.

    In this section, let us consider three negative impacts of worldliness.

    a. It replaces love for God the Father (1 John 2:15).

    When we are focused on fleshly lusts, the lust for things we see, and pride in our own accomplishments, how much room do you think is left to love God. John tells us that if we love the world and are focused on these three categories of worldliness, then love for the Father will not be found in us. That is a serious problem. When you think of all that God the Father has done for you, do you think it good to have anything replacing your love for Him?

    b. It makes you an enemy of God (James 4:4).

    James takes it a step further. It is not just a lack of love for the Lord, but a rebellion against God. “A rebellious Christian who has an illegitimate relationship with the world is at enmity with God” (Blue 830). Enmity is another way of saying hatred. The Ukrainian soldiers hate the Russian soldiers who are invading their country. When two armies are fighting in a war, there is no love lost between the two. Their end game is to destroy the other soldiers so as to win the war. If you love the world and the lust and pride in it, you are an enemy combatant against God.

    What would you think of a Ukrainian soldier who was friendly toward a Russian soldier on the weekend? You would think he was a traitor to his country. Why is he palling around with someone who is trying to destroy his country? This is the same way we should look at friendship with the world system. We should have nothing in common with the desires and thinking of Satan’s world system because it is entirely opposed to God’s character and what He wants for us.

    c. It pollutes a Christian’s life (2 Pet. 2:20).

    In this passage, Peter has been discussing the evil people who seek to turn Christians away from what God has done in their lives. As you recall, God makes each of us a new creation. He gives us a new nature, the Holy Spirit, and a desire to please Him that we didn’t have before. When God saved each of us, He cleansed us of our sins and washed us white as snow.

    But there are some who seek to deceive Christians and to turn them back to their old sinful ways. They speak great swelling words, allure with the lusts of the flesh, and promise liberty but their influence doesn’t help people to become more like Christ. Instead, they pollute the Christian’s life with sinful desires and behaviors.

    Someone once described television as a garbage pipe attached to the living room wall. Television, movies, the internet—all of these things can be good but can also pollute the Christian life. They give access to and promote lusts and pride that God calls sinful. We need to be careful what we allow into our homes because much of what is broadcast is not sympathetic with what God desires at best and is often completely against Him.

  3. What should our response be?

    As Christians, our first response to worldliness is often hatred. We hate that worldliness is so tempting. We hate that it turns our love away from God. And when we see others imbibing in worldliness, we can become angry. But before we become too angry with those who have given in to worldliness, let us consider a few Scriptural ways to respond to worldliness.

    a. Apply love and humility (Phil. 2:1-8; 4:2-3).

    In this morning’s message, we were reminded that we should have the mind of Christ. Remember how Jesus responded to the adulterous woman? He didn’t berate her. Instead, he kindly told her to go and sin no more. Jesus was known for His love and humility. If you think about it, Jesus could look down His nose at us but instead chose to love us.

    If we are to be like Jesus, we will notice the sin around us, but we will also remember from where we came. We were sinners. We are often still sinful and need God’s forgiveness and help from others to stop sinning. So, be careful how you respond. Make sure that you are not overly judgmental and that your attitude is based on God’s love and humility.

    b. Guard yourself but try to rescue the worldly person (Jude 20-23).

    It is interesting that Jude tells us to keep ourselves in the love of God. I think this “does not indicate that salvation depends on one’s own efforts… . Instead a believer is nurtured as he is occupied with God’s love for him, and is in fellowship with Him” (Pentecost 923). So even when we are addressing a worldly Christian, we need to first guard ourselves. We need to keep ourselves right with God and in His love.

    But the second thing is that we should try to rescue those who have become worldly. remember that the temptation is great and that many fall. But we shouldn’t stand by and let it happen! We should reach out to worldly Christians and seek to pull them back from the precipice. How many times have you seen a Christian fall back into adultery or drunkenness? Instead of watching the person’s downfall, reach out to them with the love of Christ and prayerfully try to help them turn from their sin back to the Lord.


My initial intention was to address some specific instances of worldliness that are affecting today’s Christians. But that will have to wait until another time. But the foundation has been laid about worldliness and how we should respond to it. What have we learned? Worldliness is a terrible system of lusts and attitudes that are in opposition to God. We can’t love God and these lusts at the same time. If we continue in these sins we will eventually become enemies of God. So let us guard ourselves from the bad influence and also seek to help those who have been deceived by worldly thinking. Perhaps we can save some before their lives are destroyed.


Blue, J. Ronald, “James” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary New Testament, USA: SP Publications, 1983, pp. 829-30.

Hiebert, D. Edmond, The Epistles of John, Greenville: BJU Press, 1991, pp. 99-103.

Hodges, Zane C., “1 John” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary New Testament, USA: SP Publications, 1983, pp. 890-91.

McGee, J. Vernon, Thru the Bible with J. Vernon McGee, Vol. V, 1 Corinthians through Revelation, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1983, p.661, 741, 773-75, 873-75.

Pentecost, Edward C., “Jude” The Bible Knowledge Commentary New Testament, USA: SP Publications, 1983, p. 923.

κόσμος as viewed at on 5/7/2023.